Coming to Terms with VPI: A Response to Loney and Bloem (Observations and Commentary)

  • Judith E. Trost-Cardamone
Keywords: velopharyngeal inadequacy, velopharyngeal incompetence, velopharyngeal insufficiency, VPI, velopharyngeal dysfunction


This report agrees with Loney and Bloem (1987) that there is no consistency in the use of terminology for velopharyngeal function disorders. It extends the recommendations of those authors, however, by proposing a taxonomy for velopharyngeal disorders based on etiology. In this classification, velopharyn-geal inadequacy is the generic term used to denote any type of abnormal velo-pharyngeal function. Within the broad category of inadequacies, three subgroups are specified, as follows: velopharyngeal insufficiency, which includes structural etiologies; velopharyngeal incompetence, which includes neuro-genic etiologies; and velopharyngeal mislearning, which includes functional etiologies. The classification uses diagnostic categories that are clinically meaningful and offer professionals an etiologically based system that can be applied in research and treatment.